When humans set out to explore the galaxy in the future they are in for a real shock. In Star Trek most aliens are comprehensible to the human psyche. They have motives that are easily understood by us. Your typical Christian can't understand the Islamic mindset. Your typical liberal can't understand the conservative mindset. Aliens are going to have mental patterns that are far more bizarre than us. Humans struggle to even understand other humans; even our own ancestors are shunned. The past is a foreign country. But we can begin to construct a theory of mind for how an alien species might think using neoreactionary principles. After all, Moldbug teaches us that adaptive fictions are the basis of cultural and political beliefs. We can trace the upstream cause of power to its downstream effect in manufacturing ideology. We can also trace the upstream cause of a particular biological nature to its downstream effect in manufacturing economics and power systems.
After all, humans are a social mammal species with capitalism. We are capitalistic because every member of a sex competes with every other member of that sex for reproductive access to the opposite sex. We have inequality because women are hypergamous and men are promiscuous. The hypergamy of women drives men to "become worthy" of sex through status competition games. The competition produces losers, war, and inequality as an inevitable byproduct. After all, the average women only wants the "best" male. In a room of ten men this means one out of ten; in a room of a hundred this means one out of a hundred. Thus, there are nine, or ninety-nine losers respectively. This is where the "one-percent" comes from. It is why one percent of men own ninety-nine percent of the wealth. (Not that I care) And it is why liberating female sexuality gives you more inequality rather than less. It is why we went from a 30/70 society to a 1/99 society. (Or at least that's the theory). The collapse of traditional morality was the collapse of sexual socialism. This violently ramped up the competition between men, while simultaneously increasing the percentage of men who are failures at reproduction. Result: no flying cars, no return to the moon, technological stagnation. A highly sexually competitive society does not maximize the talents of its beta males. And without that talent technology stagnates in relative terms, and inequality worsens.
In a semi-monogamous species of mammals the economic system is going to be a highly unequal form of capitalism. Sexual competition translates into economic inequality.
In a fully monogamous species it will be a form of mutualism. We can conceive of an alien species that is one-hundred percent monogamous. It will likely have a market economy, but instead of having privately owned firms it will have worker owned co-opts. This is because the total absence of any incentive to mate with multiple women will give every member of the society the desire to maximize resources for their own offspring, and for no others. Thus, they will be naturally unwilling to allow any boss to take profits that could be invested in their children. Result: mutual economics.
On the other hand, a eusocial species will be biologically communistic in nature. Eusocial species are species like Naked Mole Rats (one of only three eusocial mammals on Earth), bees, wasps, ants, termites, etc. The behavior of such a species will make human racism look laughable. It will be communist, and it's communism will be limited to each hive. Between hives there may be a combination of market-based trade economics, genocidal warfare, and parasitical slavery. Such societies have a queen that reproduces all members. Psychologically, this means that they will have no concept of selfishness. Since the queens reproduction is the only basis for reproductive fitness of the society, all the individuals within it will have a psychological makeup that is incapable of thinking is self-centered terms. All the drones are sisters, and the whole society is a single family. There is a radical willingness of the members to attack anything outside their society. From a human perspective they will possess a totally irrational obsessive love of their hive and its queen, and a totally insane genocidal hate of any other species—or even of any other hive.
We can imagine a planet of upright two-legged eusocial animals with language. Let us imagine, for the sake of simplicity, that they walk like humans and have opposable thumbs or some equivalent. Each of them is about 4 feet tall, and has the strength to carry a Volkswagen beetle on its back. They possess a diminished ability to feel pain since pain does not help the queen reproduce. Their language is a series of chirps that humans find practically indescribable. The queen is the size of a semi-truck trailer and they keep her safe underground. She is not sentient. All members of the society are female. Like humans they have an endoskeleton and not an exoskeleton. Like dogs, their eyes posses a second eyelid under the outside one. They have an offensive odor to humans and rarely bathe.
Humans have make-believe. We practice our imaginations in childhood in preparation for the vastly more complex and abstract political and religious make-believe of adulthood. Make-believe evolved out of tribalism. Tribes that were cohesive believed in common myths, gods, etc. They out-competed and out-reproduced less religious peoples. Thus, the world is filled with religious humans. Things like money, gods, and equality are make-believe.
Since eusocial aliens never evolved in a tribe they have no religion, no money, and no gods. They have no devotion to anything but their society. They have no words for these things in their (various) languages, but they have eight words for queen. They speak several thousand languages on their planet, with no dominant one, but certain dialects are common. Because the size of each society is limited to the number of offspring each queen can produce, their are very few societies / nations bigger than the size of the average large county in the US. As a result the planet has 25,000 nations. Each nation speaks its own language, but because of hereditary lineage there are only 15 major dialects. A hive is a nation and a nation is a hive. There is no distinction.
Long ago one or two hives mastered the art of enslaving others. This is a parasitical relationship rooted in biology similar to the behavior of slave-making ants. They capture the queen of another hive and force her, and the workers to serve them. As a result there are three or four "empires" on the planet controlled by a larger, and stronger bipedal eusocial species. They are about seven feet tall.
Economics consists of trade between nations, empires, and within empires. Since they do not have capitalism they do not develop new technologies very quickly. But they have been evolving and developing for hundreds of thousands of years, and their technology is still more advanced than ours.
What is important to realize about such a species is that it will have no concept of human rights, no regard for the lives of outsiders, no selfish desire to trade with you, no religion, and no money. And yet the social structure of such a species could allow it to achieve high technology, and space faring ability. It's various enslaved subspecies might form warrior castes, economic castes, etc. It could achieve a kind of insanely xenophobic communist empire of slavery spanning multiple worlds. Humans would come across this species and try to make friends. They would project human motives, intentions, values, onto the aliens. They would say, "can't we just all get along?," when the appropriate response should be, "kill it with nuclear fire." In real life Ender (from Ender's Game) would be the greatest traitor/cuck to the human species that ever lived. When humans come across another intelligent species the first thing they will need to do is to understand their psychology, economics, culture, etc. The way to do that is to use biology as your starting point. Culture may be downstream from power, but power and economics are downstream from biology.
A species of bisexuals will have a different economic system that a species of mostly heterosexuals. Imagine what Bonobo economics would look like. It will probably be socialist.
A completely monogamous species will have a more mutualist economics.
A eusocial species will be dangerous.
Some of these species we might be able to work with. Others would have to be either completely avoided or totally destroyed.